The flea, which is the carrier of the disease, feels best in warm and humid climates.
As a result of the research, it was found that the genome of modern plague strains is identical to the disease of the Middle Ages, which proves that it was the bubonic form of the pathology that became the "black death" for people of that time. Therefore, any other opinions are automatically moved to the wrong category. But a more detailed study of the issue is still ongoing. Bubonic plague is a quarantine natural focal infection.
The main clinical symptom is the presence of plague bubo. buy ezetimibe online is characterized by high fever, severe intoxication, with immunosuppression, visceral damage is possible, generalization of infection. Diagnostics is based on the detection of the pathogen in biological materials (microscopy, culture, PCR), serological methods are not very informative, they are practically not used. Treatment is carried out under conditions of mandatory quarantine, includes antimicrobial etiotropic therapy, massive detoxification, symptomatic methods. Rarely resort to surgical interventions.
Causes Pathogenesis Symptoms of bubonic plague Complications Diagnosis Treatment of bubonic plague Conservative therapy Surgical treatment Experimental treatment Prognosis and prevention Prices for treatment.Read more
Insects become infectious within 3-5 days after the pathogen enters them and remains.remain so throughout the year. When bitten by a flea, the contents of the stomach with a large number of zetia regurgitate into the wound. Airborne, fecal-oral and contact-household routes of infection are also described.
The main risk factors for infection with bubonic plague are living and military service in endemic areas, professions associated with the extermination of rodents, work in granaries, and the veterinary service. Archaeological expeditions that unearth ancient burial sites, as well as livestock breeders, medical personnel, shepherds, tourists, employees of international airports and zoos are at risk.
After penetration into the body, plague bacteria multiply at the site of introduction, forming an inflammatory compacted area or a papule, pustule with hemorrhagic contents. The spread of the pathogen occurs lymphogenously to the regional lymph nodes, inside which the bacteria multiply. A feature of Y. pestis is the ability to suppress the phagocytic activity of macrophages, intracellular reproduction in them. At the same time, a large amount of ezetimibe, tissue decay products, pathogens are released, which causes intoxication symptoms.
Children, persons under 20 years of age, and adult men are most susceptible to bubonic plague.
The incubation period is 2-6 days, less often 1-12 days, the leading symptoms are increasing local pain (usually in the groin), fever up to 39-40 ° C or more. Patients are forced to maintain extremely uncomfortable postures to reduce pain. Characterized by severe chills, severe weakness, headaches, sleep disorders, anxiety, incoordination of movements, sometimes delirium, hallucinations. About half of those infected with bubonic plague report symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, episodes of diarrhea.
After a few days, the formation softens, throbbing pains appear in it, a fistulous opening may form with pouring purulent contents. After opening the bubo, patients note some improvement in well-being, a decrease in the severity of Zetia pill.
The conglomerate is immobile because it is soldered to the surrounding tissue. Movements in the limb (often the lower one) are limited.
The most common negative consequences of bubonic plague include symptoms from the blood coagulation system (up to 86% of patients), which in 5-10% of cases leads to dry gangrene of the skin, upper and lower extremities. 5-50% of patients have complications in the form of single, multiple, or massive hemorrhages. In patients with bubonic plague with impaired immunity, severe concomitant diseases of a systemic nature, a transition to a generalized form occurs on the 2-3rd day of the disease.
Differential diagnosis is carried out with tularemia (mildly painful, not soldered to the skin bubo). With tuberculosis, the growth of the lymph node is gradual, there are indications of immunodeficiency, and a history of symptoms of tuberculosis. Rat bite, urticaria maculosa, or cat scratching, and lymphangitis are indicative of sodoku and cat-scratch disease, respectively. Lymphogranulomatosis manifests itself with symptoms of damage to the lungs, bones, and gastrointestinal tract. Chlamydia infection sometimes occurs with unilateral inguinal lymphadenitis, soldering with surrounding tissues, and fistula formation.
All patients with suspected disease or with pathognomonic symptoms are necessarily hospitalized in the boxed ward of the infectious diseases department for immediate treatment.
In experiments with the treatment of mice, an increase in the macrophage ability to infiltrate infected tissues and absorb apoptotic neutrophils under the influence of these hormonal preparations has been proven.
Surgical opening and drainage of buboes is recommended when a symptom of fluctuation conglom appears.erats, at the same time intrabubo injected antibiotics active against Y. Pestis, streptococci and staphylococci.
With a therapeutic and diagnostic purpose, a fine-needle puncture biopsy of the lymph nodes can be performed with simultaneous emptying of the bubo. In the presence of a skin ulcer, it is excised for the purpose of histological examination.
Bed rest is prescribed until 4-5 days of normalization of body temperature, movement is limited to boxing. Treatment of patients with bubonic plague is aimed at reducing the severity of symptoms, preventing infection of other people.
Patients must be prescribed antibacterial agents that are effective against the pathogen and administered parenterally. These include streptomycin, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, rifampicin. Requires massive intravenous detoxification with glucose-salt, succinate-containing solutions, the appointment of painkillers, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic drugs. The volume of symptomatic treatment depends on the clinical need.
Dietary recommendations are non-specific, due to the need to administer antibiotics with a wide range of undesirable toxic effects, therefore heavy food and alcohol are excluded from the patient's diet. The drinking regimen is increased for the purpose of detoxification.